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FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS CONTAINING HALOCARBONS CAVITATION ( functional-fluids-containing-halocarbons-cavitation )

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3,591,506 Patented July 6, 1971 somewhat limited and the degree of protection against damage a?orded iscomparatively small. SUMMARY It has now been found that the inclusion of minor amounts of certain relatively low molecular weight halo carbons in functional ?uid compositions results in a highly signi?cant decrease in the amount of cavitation erosion and damage to systems in which the ?uid compositions are employed. The halocarbons which are used are those compounds containing from 1 to 6 carbon atoms and boiling be tween —100° C. and +50° C. The compounds may con tain hydrogen, in addition to ?uorine, chlorine and bro mine or any combination thereof. Iodine substitution is not acceptable due to instability and consequent excessive corrosion. However, the preferred materials contain no hydrogen as the per?uoro and chlorine and bromine sub stituted per?uoro materials are signi?cantly less ?amma ble than those materials containing hydrogen. Functional ?uids of various types are employed for numerous purposes. Illustrative of the functions served are lubrication, cooling and quenching, and, most im portant, energy transmission. In all of these uses, it is quite important that the materials perform their indicated function, e.g., power transmission, and that the ?uids themselves do not contribute to either chemical or me chanical attack upon the equipment in which they are employed. Such equipment generally is illustrated by pumps,valves,transmissionlines,reservoirs,etc.Chemical attackisusuallycorrosion,includingeitheroxidativeor_ methane,chlorodi?uoromethane,bromodi?uoromethane; UnitedStatesPatent: l?ce 12 3,591,506 FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS CONTAINING HALOCAR BONS FOR PREVENTING CAVITATION DAMAGE Robert L. Peeler, Albany, Douglas Godfrey, San Rafael, and Neal W. Furby, Berkeley, Calif., assignors to Chevron Research Company, San Francisco, Calif. No Drawing. Filed Jan. 4, 1968, Ser. No. 695,553 Int. Cl. C09k 3/00; Cltlm 1/46; C281? 11/]0 US. Cl. 252—78 11 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Functional ?uid containing a cavitation-damage inhibit ing additive which is a halocarbon containing from 1 to 6 carbon atoms and boiling below 50° C., wherein the halo gen substituents on the halocarbon are chlorine, bromine or ?uorine. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION some other form of chemical attack by the ?uid itself upon metal and other surfaces of the equipment. Mechanical attack which often occurs isusually manifested by erosion of the solid parts and ordinarily accompanies cavitation in the ?uid. Cavitation results when a ?uid at a given pressure moves toward a lower pressure with an accom panyingincreasein?uidvelocity.When thepressuredrop reaches a certain level, and the level, of course, varies with the inherent characteristics of the ?uid, the ?uid cavitates and causes erosive attack upon various parts of 40 propane, l-bromo-2,2,3,3,3-penta?uoropropane, l-chloro the ?uid carrying system, usually those parts located downstream from the point at which the pressure drop occurs. Thus, the effect of cavitation upon the mechanical parts of various systems is often quite severe, and, as well, there also often results breakdown of the functional ?uid itself. The effects upon mechanical parts include decrease in strengthofvariouscomponentssuchaspumps (especially impellers) and valves. Erosion of the valves often results in excessive leaking and possible complete breakdown of the valve with ultimate serious effects. Additionally, the metal fragments which are eroded from the metal parts often enter the ?uid and cause decreased lubrication and actual friction wear of many other tightly ?tting or mov ingparts.Othereffectswhichoftenresultincludeclogging55 hydrogeninclude1,1-di?uoroethylene,1,2-di?uoroethyl of the ?lters and as previously noted, degradation of the ?uid itself, resulting in short life for the ?uid because of increased viscosity, acid number, insoluble materials, ene, 1—chloro-l-hydroper?uoro-l-propene, 2 - ibromo - 1, 1—dihydroper?uoropropene, etc. Aliphatic hydrocarbon derivatives containing no hy drogen which may be employed and represent a preferred chemical activity, etc. Recentdevelopmentsintheaircraftindustry,withthe 60 classbecauseoflow?ammabilityincludechlorotri?uoro increased use of high pressure hydraulic systems, have focused attention upon the problem of damaging effects from cavitation. These effects have been especially notice methane, dichlorodi?uoromethane, bromotri?uorometh ane, chloroper?uoroethane, bromoper?uoroethane, 1,1 dichloroper?uorethane, 1,1 - dibromoper?uoroethane, 1,2 - dichloroper?uoroethane, 1,2-dibromoper?uoroeth able in the case of systems which employ phosphate ester ?uids.Ithasrecentlybeendisclosedthattheoperationof65 ane,l-chloroper?uoropropane,l-bromoper?uoropropane, a hydraulic system with a completely dry ?uid produced greater cavitation damage than when the system was op erated with ?uid which was contaminated with water. From these facts, it was deduced that the presence of a small amount of water in the system retarded somewhat 70 clobutane, n - l - chloroper?uorobutane, iso - 1 - chloro per?uorobutane, per?uorobutane, n - 1 -bromoper?uoro tiveness of water in reducing the damage, however, is butane, n - per?uoropentane, iso - per?uoropentane, per the damage resulting from cavitation erosion. The effec DESCRIPTION The halocarbons which are employed as cavitation dam age reducing agents include saturated or unsaturated ali phatic straight or branched chain, cyclic or acyclic ma terials. Examples of suitable aliphatic additives which contain hydrogen include the following: (1) Methyl derivatives such as methyl chloride, meth ylene chloride, methyl bromide, di?uoro- and tri?uoro (2) Ethane derivatives such as ethyl ?uoride, ethyl chloride, ethyl bromide, l-chloro-l-fluoroethane, 1-chloro 2-?uoroethane, l-bromo-l-?uoroethane, 1-bromo-2-?uoro ethane, 1,1-di?uoroethane, 1,1,l-chlorodi?uoroethane 1,1, Z-tri?uoroethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-di?uoroethane, 1,1,1 brornodi?uoroethane, 1—bromo-2,2-di?uoroethane, l-bro mo-l,2-tri?uoroethane, 1-chloro-22-di?uoromethane, l-chloro-l,2,2-tri?uoroethane, etc. l,2.2,3,3,3-hexa?uoropropane (1—chloro-l-hydroper?uoro propane), per?uoro-l-ch1oro-2,2-dihydropropane, etc. (3) Propane derivatives such as 1-chloro-l,2-di?uoro (4) Butane derivatives such as n-per?uoro-l-hydro butane,n-per?uoro-l,l-dihydrobutane,n-per?uoro-l-chlo ro-4-hydrobutane, per?uoro-1-chloro-2 - methylpropane, per?uorohydrocyclobutane, etc.; and (5) Pentane derivatives including n-per?uoro-l-hydro pentane, n-per?uoro - 2 - hydropentane, and per?uoro monohydrocyclopentane. In describing those of the above compounds which contain numerous ?uorine substitutions, use has been of the “per?uoro” terminology, and hydrogen substitution for ?uorine is indicated by the pre?x “hydro.” Suitable unsaturated aliphatic compounds containing 1,1 - dichloroper?uoroethane, 1,2 - dichloroper?uoro ethane, 1,1-dibromoper?uoroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,1,2-trichloroper?uoroethane, per?uoroethane, per ?uoropropane, per?uorocyclobutane, chloroper?uorocy



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