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THERMAL MACHINES AND HEAT ENGINES

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THERMAL MACHINES AND HEAT ENGINES ( thermal-machines-and-heat-engines )

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THERMAL MACHINES AND HEAT ENGINES Thermal machines .....................................................................................................................................1 The heat engine .....................................................................................................................................2 What it is ...........................................................................................................................................2 What it is for .....................................................................................................................................2 Thermal aspects of heat engines .......................................................................................................2 Carnot cycle ..........................................................................................................................................3 Gas power cycles ..................................................................................................................................4 Otto cycle ..........................................................................................................................................4 Diesel cycle .......................................................................................................................................7 Brayton cycle ....................................................................................................................................9 Other gas cycles ..............................................................................................................................10 Vapour power cycles...........................................................................................................................12 Rankine cycle..................................................................................................................................12 Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC)......................................................................................................14 Lorenz cycle and Kalina cycle ........................................................................................................14 Combined power cycles ......................................................................................................................15 Propulsion ...........................................................................................................................................16 Cogeneration .......................................................................................................................................20 Efficiency in power generation with heat engines and other generators ............................................21 Type of problems ................................................................................................................................22 THERMAL MACHINES A machine is a mechanical device with moving parts that helps to do some useful action, usually work, from a simple wheel-and-shaft, to a nuclear power station. Machines may be just mechanical (pulley- and-belt), hydraulic (water wheel, the earliest engine), pneumatic (windmill), electrical (electric motor, the most common nowadays), chemical (fuel cell), or thermal. We restrict the name 'thermal machines' to devices that converts heat to work (heat engine), and to devices that pump low-temperature energy to high-temperature energy (by using some source of exergy), all working cyclically. The heat pumping machine may be intended to produce cold (refrigerator), or to produce heat (heat pump), or both at the same time (refrigerator with heat recovery, or heat pump). We do not include in this definition a simple thermal component as a compressor or turbine, in spite of the fact that it is a machine and it encompasses thermal processes. Notice also that Engine Thermodynamics is a wider subject than Heat-Engine Thermodynamics; e.g. fuel cells are not heat engines but electrochemical engines, and internal combustion engines are really thermochemical engines, their study requiring Chemical Thermodynamics; in the strict sense, only steam engines (and Stirling engines and the like) are heat engines. We present in this chapter the thermodynamics of heat engines, and leave the thermodynamics of refrigerators and heat pumps for the next chapter. A broader perspective of power generation can be found under Thermal Systems. Moreover, thermoelectric generators, which are heat engines based on Seebeck effect, are not covered here.

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