Synthesis of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Aerial Part Extract

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nanomaterials Article Synthesis of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) Using a Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn. Aerial Part Extract and Their Application as Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antioxidant Agents Majid Sharifi-Rad 1,* and Pawel Pohl 2,* 1 Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Water and Soil, University of Zabol, Zabol 98613-35856, Iran Department of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Metallurgy, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology, Wyspianskiego 27, 50370 Wroclaw, Poland 2 * Correspondence: majid.sharifirad@gmail.com (M.S.-R.); pawel.pohl@pwr.edu.pl (P.P.) Received: 28 February 2020; Accepted: 26 March 2020; Published: 29 March 2020 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Abstract: In this study, very simple and fast one-step synthesis of biogenic silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) using a Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn. aerial part extract from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate at room temperature is proposed. The proceedings of the reaction were investigated by UV–Vis spectroscopy. AgCl-NPs were characterized using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Antibacterial and antifungal activities of these nanoparticles were evaluated by disk diffusion and microdilution methods against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and C. glabrata. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the synthesized AgCl-NPs was determined by the DPPH radical scavenging assay. The antimicrobial test confirmed the bactericidal activity of biosynthesized AgCl-NPs against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They also exhibited good antifungal activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 40 to 60 μg/mL against Candida glabrata and Candida albicans, respectively. In addition, biosynthesized AgCl-NPs were established to have remarkable antioxidant activity. All this pointed out that the proposed new biosynthesis approach resulted in production of AgCl-NPs with convenient biomedical applications. Keywords: biomedical application; green synthesis; silver chloride nanoparticle; Pulicaria vulgaris 1. Introduction Nanotechnology is the most fascinating field of study in modern material sciences [1]. Nanoparticles (NPs) show a particle size ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm) [2]. Because of the large surface area to volume ratios, nanoscale materials have unique and superior physicochemical characteristics in comparison to their bulk structures [3]. Most of studied NPs are metallic because their syntheses are easier. In addition, monometallic or bimetallic NPs have a wide range of applications; i.e., from detectors, chemical sensors, and catalysts, to surface coating agents, electronic components, photographic components, and pharmaceutical products [4,5]. Metallic NPs can be synthesized using different methods; i.e., chemical, physical, and biological. Conventional physical and chemical methods normally include expensive physical and chemical processes that often use substrates or are accompanied by byproducts, which pose cytotoxicity, environmental toxicity, and carcinogenicity [6]. Bio-based synthesis, facilitated by the use of enzymes, microorganisms, and cell or plant extracts to reduce dissolved metal ions, is considered as an inexpensive, simple, nontoxic, and environment-friendly approach to the production of well characterized, highly stable, Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 638; doi:10.3390/nano10040638 www.mdpi.com/journal/nanomaterials

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