Plant and Microbe-Based Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles

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Plant and Microbe-Based Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles ( plant-and-microbe-based-synthesis-metallic-nanoparticles )

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nanomaterials Review Advancements in Plant and Microbe-Based Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles and Their Antimicrobial Activity against Plant Pathogens Md. Arshad Ali 1 , Temoor Ahmed 1, Wenge Wu 2,*, Afsana Hossain 1,3, Rahila Hafeez 1, Md. Mahidul Islam Masum 4 , Yanli Wang 5,*, Qianli An 1 , Guochang Sun 5 and Bin Li 1,* 1 2 3 4 State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Biotechnology, College of Agricultural and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; alibau201@gmail.com (M.A.A.); temoorahmed248@gmail.com (T.A.); afsana_07@yahoo.com (A.H.); rahila.impp@gmail.com (R.H.); an@zju.edu.cn (Q.A.) Rice Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei 230001, China Department of Plant Pathology and Seed Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh Department of Plant Pathology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh; masum@bsmrau.edu.bd State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-Products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China; sungc01@sina.com 5 * Correspondence: aaasrri@163.com (W.W.); ylwang88@aliyun.com (Y.W.); libin0571@zju.edu.cn (B.L.) Received: 8 May 2020; Accepted: 4 June 2020; Published: 11 June 2020 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Abstract: A large number of metallic nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by using different plant extracts and microbes including bacteria, fungi viruses and microalgae. Some of these metallic nanoparticles showed strong antimicrobial activities against phytopathogens. Here, we summarized these green-synthesized nanoparticles from plants and microbes and their applications in the control of plant pathogens. We also discussed the potential deleterious effects of the metallic nanoparticles on plants and beneficial microbial communities associated with plants. Overall, this review calls for attention regarding the use of green-synthesized metallic nanoparticles in controlling plant diseases and clarification of the risks to plants, plant-associated microbial communities, and environments before using them in agriculture. Keywords: green synthesis; microorganisms; plant extracts; metallic nanoparticles; plant pathogens 1. Introduction Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science with a wide range of applications in various areas including medicine and agriculture. In agriculture, nanotechnology can be exploited by the use of natural resources in the conservation, production and protection of crops and livestock [1]. Recently, biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) or green synthesis of NPs has received much attention due to the biocompatibility, low toxicity, and eco-friendly nature of the process and NP products [2]. The use of biological materials, such as bacteria, yeast, mold, microalgae and plant extracts, to synthesize NPs has some advantages like less energy consumption and moderate technology without using toxic chemicals [3,4]. The application of nanotechnology in plant disease control is just emerging [5]. NPs can be used directly or as carriers of various pesticides for plant protection. Most of the studies have been done in laboratory conditions [6]. It is crucial for us to know the effects on plants, microbes associated with the plants in fields and overall ecosystems before the application of green-synthesized NPs in plant disease management. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1146; doi:10.3390/nano10061146 www.mdpi.com/journal/nanomaterials

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