Multiplexed Nanobiosensors: Current Trends in Early Diagnostics

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sensors Review Multiplexed Nanobiosensors: Current Trends in Early Diagnostics Greta Jarockyte 1,2 , Vitalijus Karabanovas 1,2,* , Ricardas Rotomskis 2 and Ali Mobasheri 1,3,4 1 2 3 4 * Correspondence: vitalijus.karabanovas@nvi.lt Received: 9 November 2020; Accepted: 30 November 2020; Published: 2 December 2020 Department of Regenerative Medicine, State Research Institute Centre for Innovative Medicine, Santariskiu 5, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania; greta.jarockyte@imcentras.lt (G.J.); ali.mobasheri@imcentras.lt (A.M.) Biomedical Physics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Baublio 3b, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania; ricardas.rotomskis@nvi.lt Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland Departments of Orthopedics, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract: The ever-growing demand for fast, cheap, and reliable diagnostic tools for personalised medicine is encouraging scientists to improve existing technology platforms and to create new methods for the detection and quantification of biomarkers of clinical significance. Simultaneous detection of multiple analytes allows more accurate assessment of changes in biomarker expression and offers the possibility of disease diagnosis at the earliest stages. The concept of multiplexing, where multiple analytes can be detected in a single sample, can be tackled using several types of nanomaterial-based biosensors. Quantum dots are widely used photoluminescent nanoparticles and represent one of the most frequent choices for different multiplex systems. However, nanoparticles that incorporate gold, silver, and rare earth metals with their unique optical properties are an emerging perspective in the multiplexing field. In this review, we summarise progress in various nanoparticle applications for multiplexed biomarkers. Keywords: multiplexing; nanoparticles; quantum dots; gold nanoparticles; silver nanoparticles; upconverting nanoparticles 1. Introduction The clinical diagnosis of many diseases depends on the accurate and unambiguous detection of various biomarkers, which may include proteins or other biomolecules [1–3]. Immunoassays are a well-established tool for measuring analytes that are normally present at very low concentrations and cannot be determined accurately by other less expensive tests. Standard immunoassays are used to detect one specific analyte, however, for complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA), which involve a multitude of biomarkers, one analyte is not enough to obtain an early and accurate diagnosis. In this case, multiple immunoassays can be employed. However, immunoassays require samples that are collected, labelled, archived, and bio-banked according to established laboratory protocols before even conducting the assays, which makes this method challenging and time-consuming. In order to diagnose at the earliest stages of disease development, it is crucial to detect as much information as possible from small quantities of clinical samples. In this context, multiplexed immunoassays are an obvious and attractive approach, especially when sample volumes are limited. The main advantage of multiplexed analysis is the capability to detect multiple 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Sensors 2020, 20, 6890; doi:10.3390/s20236890 www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors

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