Inkjet-Printing Nanoparticle Gold Silver Ink Cyclic Olefin

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Inkjet-Printing Nanoparticle Gold Silver Ink Cyclic Olefin ( inkjet-printing-nanoparticle-gold-silver-ink-cyclic-olefin )

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sensors Article Inkjet-Printing of Nanoparticle Gold and Silver Ink on Cyclic Olefin Copolymer for DNA-Sensing Applications Martin Trotter 1,*,†, Daniel Juric 2,†,‡ , Zahra Bagherian 3, Nadine Borst 1,3, Kerstin Gläser 2, Thomas Meissner 2,§, Felix von Stetten 1,3 and André Zimmermann 2,4 1 2 3 4 * Correspondence: martin.trotter@hahn-schickard.de; Tel.: +49-761-203-73225 † These authors contributed equally. ‡ Present address: Robert Bosch GmbH, Markwiesenstraße 46, 72770 Reutlingen, Germany. § Present address: Balluff GmbH, Schurwaldstraße 9, 73765 Neuhausen, Germany. Received: 31 January 2020; Accepted: 25 February 2020; Published: 29 February 2020 Hahn-Schickard, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany; nadine.borst@hahn-schickard.de (N.B.); Felix.von.Stetten@Hahn-Schickard.de (F.v.S.) Hahn-Schickard, Allmandring 9b, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany; danieljuric@gmx.de (D.J.); kerstin.glaeser@hahn-schickard.de (K.G.); thomas.meissner@balluff.de (T.M.); Andre.Zimmermann@Hahn-Schickard.de (A.Z.) Laboratory for MEMS Applications, IMTEK—Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany; zahra.bagherian@imtek.uni-freiburg.de Institute for Micro Integration IFM, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 9b, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany Abstract: Inkjet technology as a maskless, direct-writing technology offers the potential for structured deposition of functional materials for the realization of electrodes for, e.g., sensing applications. In this work, electrodes were realized by inkjet-printing of commercial nanoparticle gold ink on planar substrates and, for the first time, onto the 2.5D surfaces of a 0.5 mm-deep microfluidic chamber produced in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). The challenges of a poor wetting behavior and a low process temperature of the COC used were solved by a pretreatment with oxygen plasma and the combination of thermal (130 ◦C for 1 h) and photonic (955 mJ/cm2) steps for sintering. By performing the photonic curing, the resistance could be reduced by about 50% to 22.7 μΩ cm. The printed gold structures were mechanically stable (optimal cross-cut value) and porous (roughness factors between 8.6 and 24.4 for 3 and 9 inkjet-printed layers, respectively). Thiolated DNA probes were immobilized throughout the porous structure without the necessity of a surface activation step. Hybridization of labeled DNA probes resulted in specific signals comparable to signals on commercial screen-printed electrodes and could be reproduced after regeneration. The process described may facilitate the integration of electrodes in 2.5D lab-on-a-chip systems. Keywords: inkjet-printing; gold nanoparticles; electrode integration; DNA sensing; electrochemical sensors; lab-on-a-chip 1. Introduction The introduction of electrodes in lab-on-a-chip cartridges enables various important electrokinetic unit-operations [1] and allows the integration of important electrochemical biosensing methods, which in turn can benefit from the miniaturization, automation, and increased throughput possibilities of microfluidics [2]. The electrodes are commonly produced by screen-printing, etching of printed circuit boards (PCB) or by cleanroom processes like metal evaporation and sputtering [3], often on planar substrates that need to be bonded afterwards to the fluidic layer [2]. Furthermore, these processes are 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Sensors 2020, 20, 1333; doi:10.3390/s20051333 www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors

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