Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle Oscillatoria extract

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Heliyon 5 (2019) e02502 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Heliyon journal homepage: www.heliyon.com Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Oscillatoria sp. extract, its antibacterial, antibiofilm potential and cytotoxicity activity Bukola Adebayo-Tayo a, *, Adebayo Salaam b, Adebola Ajibade a a Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria b Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria ARTICLEINFO Keywords: Chemical engineering Chemistry Biological sciences Health sciences Materials science Oscillatoria sp Nanoparticles Characterization Antibacterial Antibiofilm Cytotoxicity 1. Introduction Oscillatoria sp. is blue - green algae which belong to Phylum Cyano- bacteria, Class Cyanophyceae, Order Oscillatoriales and Family Oscil- latoraceae. They are either straight or slightly irregular or cylindrical sometimes coiled at both ends and are usually between 4 – 50 μm long. They are mostly present in shady area and cells can be blue-green, olive or almost black in colour [1]. Chronic bacterial infection is of great concern in clinical sector and it is related to the emergence of persistent bacteria [2] which use survival mode that is different from that of resistance which is known to either occur through horizontal gene transfer or genetic mutation [3]. Persistent bacteria are usually stimu- lated by the exposure to low concentration of silver nanoparticles which leads to the oxidative stress in such bacteria [4]. Staphylococcus aureus is an example of earlier reported persistent bacterium [5]. The emergence of persistent bacteria in health sector in recent years has led to the wide application of nanotechnology which uses nanoscientific ideas to design materials whose structural component size is usually less than 100 nm [6, 7]. It also involves imaging, measuring, modeling and deformation of matter at nanoscale level [8]. Nanoparticles serve as fundamental * Corresponding author. E-mail address: bukola.tayo@gmail.com (B. Adebayo-Tayo). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02502 ABSTRACT Green route biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using methanol extract of Oscillatoria sp. was investigated. The nanoparticles (OsSNPs) were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, Thermogravimetry, EDX and DLS. The antibacterial, antibiofilm and in vitro cytotoxicity activity of the OsSNPs was determined. Surface Plasmon Resonance peak was at 500 nm. Functional groups such as hydroxyl; alcohol, phosphate, and amine among others were responsible for the capping and stabilization of proteins in the nanoparticles. The OsSNPs were spherical with size of 10 nm and are thermostable to an extent without totally losing its weight. EDX analysis revealed a strong signal of silver element. DLS shows the particle diameter average of 0.000 nm and 558.1 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.580. The OsSNPs had effective antibacterial activity against the test bacterial pathogens with zone of inhibition ranged from 1 - 21 mm. OsSNPs exhibited strong antibiofilm activity. However, the toxicity of the OsSNPs to Artemia salina (brine shrimp) was observed to be insignificant with the highest mortality at 4000 μg/mL and lethal dose (LC50) of 2630.3 μg/mL. Greenly synthesized OsSNPs had effective antibacterial potency and low cytotoxicity which suggests its use in biomedical and pharmacological applications. building blocks of nanodevices which are used in various practical ap- plications [9]. Nanotechnology is a science that deals with manipulation of materials within size range of 0.1–100 nm. Nanomaterials are known to possess unique properties such as electrical conductance, chemical reactivity, magnetism, optical effects and physical strength, which differentiate them from bulk materials. The unique properties possessed by nano- materials are as a result of their small size [10]. Nanoparticles are the basic building blocks in Nano devices which are useful in various ap- plications. Nanoparticles have unique characteristics such as large sur- face to volume ratio and definite quantum confinement effect among other biological, physical and chemical properties which give them an edge over bulk materials [11]. Production of nanoparticles can be achieved through physical, chemical and biological methods. Of these three methods, chemical method is the most common method which involves the use of toxic chemicals in the production of nanoparticles. Some of the physical and chemical methods include reduction, arc discharge, electrochemical and reduction processes. The desire of nanotechnology in the production of eco-friendly nanoparticles which is different from the previous ones has Received 22 June 2019; Received in revised form 13 August 2019; Accepted 17 September 2019 2405-8440/© 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by- nc-nd/4.0/).

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