Formation Kinematics of Plasma-Generated Silver Nanoparticles

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nanomaterials Article In Situ Investigation of the Formation Kinematics of Plasma-Generated Silver Nanoparticles Daniel Tasche 1,2, Mirco Weber 1,3, Julia Mrotzek 1, Christoph Gerhard 1 , Stephan Wieneke 1, Wiebke Möbius 4, Oliver Höfft 5 and Wolfgang Viöl 1,* 1 2 3 4 5 * Correspondence: wolfgang.vioel@hawk.de; Tel.: +49-551-3705-218 Received: 20 February 2020; Accepted: 15 March 2020; Published: 19 March 2020 Faculty of Engineering and Health, HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99/100, 37085 Göttingen, Germany; daniel.tasche2@hawk.de (D.T.); mirco.weber@hawk.de (M.W.); julia.mrotzek@hawk.de (J.M.); christoph.gerhard@hawk.de (C.G.); stephan.wieneke@hawk.de (S.W.) Faculty of Natural and Materials Science, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch-Straße 42, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Georg August University of Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Electron Microscopy Core Unit, Hermann-Rein-Str. 3, 37075 Göttingen, Germany; moebius@em.mpg.de Institute of Electrochemistry, Clausthal University of Technology, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Straße 6, 37678 Clausthal Zellerfeld, Germany; O.Hoefft@pe.tu-clausthal.de Abstract: In this publication, it is shown how to synthesize silver nanoparticles from silver cations out of aqueous solutions by the use of an atmospheric pressure plasma source. The use of an atmospheric pressure plasma leads to a very fast reduction of silver ions in extensive solvent volumes. In order to investigate the nanoparticle synthesis process, ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) absorption spectra were recorded in situ. By using transmission electron microscopy and by the analysis of UV/VIS spectra, the kinetics of silver nanoparticle formation by plasma influence can be seen in more detail. For example, there are two different sections visible in the synthesis during the plasma exposure process. The first section of the synthesis is characterized by a linear formation of small spherical particles of nearly constant size. The second section is predominated by saturation effects. Here, particle faults are increasingly formed, induced by changes in the particle shape and the fusion of those particles. The plasma exposure time, therefore, determines the shape and size distribution of the nanoparticles. Keywords: silver nanoparticles synthesis; atmospheric pressure plasma; formation kinematic 1. Introduction In recent years, interest in the coupling of plasmas and liquids has strongly increased for scientific and technological reasons. The synthesis of nanoparticles by means of an atmospheric pressure plasma discharge ignited above a solution has attracted attention [1]. In the areas of medicine [2], textile technology [3], printing technology [4], biotechnology [5], and sensor technology, especially surface-enhanced Raman scattering [6], the silver nanoparticle creation is of particular interest due to its versatile application. The strong antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles is especially useful in the medical field [2]. Silver nanoparticle synthesis is usually achieved by reduction via sodium borohydride [7]. It is also possible to obtain silver nanoparticles by laser ablation of a silver solid within a solution [8], with gamma radiation, via UV-photoreduction [9], or through high-temperature reactions [10]. There is also an ecologically valuable way to synthesize silver nanoparticles of different sizes by using 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 555; doi:10.3390/nano10030555 www.mdpi.com/journal/nanomaterials

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