International Sorption Heat Pump Conference

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International Sorption Heat Pump Conference ( international-sorption-heat-pump-conference )

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International Sorption Heat Pump Conference June 22-24, 2005; Denver, CO, USA ISHPC - 101 K - 2005 ADSORPTION REFRIGERATION - AN EFFICIENT WAY TO MAKE GOOD USE OF WASTE HEAT AND SOLAR ENERGY ABSTRACT R. Z. Wang# and R. G. Oliveira Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, P.R. China # E-mail: rzwang@sjtu.edu.cn - Tel/fax: +86-21-6293-3838 This paper presents the achievements in solid sorption refrigeration prototypes obtained since the interest in sorption systems was renewed at the end of the 1970s. The applications included are ice making and air conditioning. The latter includes not only cooling and heating, but also dehumidification by desiccant systems. The prototypes presented were designed to use waste heat or solar energy as the main heat sources. The waste heat could be from diesel engines or from power plants, in combined cooling, heating and power systems (CCHP). The current technology of adsorption solar powered icemakers allows a daily ice production of between 4 and 7 kg per m2 of solar collector with a solar COP between 0.10 and 0.15. The silica gel-water chillers studied can be powered by hot water warmer than 55 °C. The COP is usually around 0.2 to 0.6, and in some commercially produced machines, the COP can be up to 0.7. The utilization of such chillers in CCHP systems, hospitals, buildings and grain depots are discussed. Despite their advantages, solid sorption systems still present some drawbacks such as low specific cooling power and COP. Thus, some techniques to overcome these problems are also contemplated, together with the perspectives for their broad commercialization. Adsorption, Refrigeration, Heat Pump, Heat Management. 1. INTRODUCTION The interest in adsorption systems started to increase, firstly due to the oil crisis in the 1970s that lead to a concern about the energy shortage, and then later, in the 1990s, because of ecological problems related to the use of CFCs and HCFCs as refrigerants. Such refrigerants, when released into the atmosphere, deplete the ozone layer and contribute to the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, with the increase of the energy consumption worldwide, it is becoming even more urgent to find ways of using the energy resources as efficiently as possible. Thus, machines that can recover waste heat at low temperature levels, such as adsorption machines, can be an interesting alternative for a wiser energy management. The conventional adsorption cycle has been presented extensively in the literature [1-3] and it mainly includes two phases: 1) Adsorbent cooling with adsorption process, which results in refrigerant evaporation inside the evaporator and, thus, in the desired refrigeration effect. At this phase, the sensible heat and the adsorption heat are consumed by a cooling medium, which is usually water or air. 2) Adsorbent heating with desorption process, also called generation, which results in refrigerant condensation at the condenser and heat release into the environment. The heat necessary for the generation process can be supplied by a low-grade heat source, such as solar energy, waste heat, etc. In comparison with mechanical vapour compression systems, adsorption systems have the benefits of energy saving if powered by waste heat or solar energy, simpler control, no vibration and lower operation costs. In comparison with liquid absorption systems, adsorption ones present the advantage of being able to be powered by a large range of heat source temperatures, starting at 50 °C and going up to 500 °C. Moreover, the latter kind of system does not need a liquid pump or rectifier for the refrigerant, does not present corrosion problems due to the working pairs normally used, and it is also less sensitive to shocks and to the installation position. These last two features make it suitable for applications in locomotives, busses, boats and spacecrafts. Although adsorption systems present all the benefits listed above, they usually also have the drawbacks of low COP and low specific cooling power (SCP). However, these inconveniences can be overcome by the intensification of the heat and mass transfer properties in the adsorber, by increasing the adsorption properties of the working pairs and by a better heat management during the adsorption cycle. Thus, most research on this kind of system is related to the evaluation of the adsorption and physical-chemical properties of the working pairs [4-19], to the development of predictive models of their behaviour in different working conditions [20-33], and to the study of the different kinds of cycles [34-51]. Based on the results of these kinds of research, some prototypes were constructed and they had their performance evaluated in laboratory or in real applications. This paper presents the results obtained with these prototypes and some adsorption machines already on the market, and shows the analyses of their advantages and their disadvantages. 1

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