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Publication Name: Solar energy powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO2
Original File Name Searched: 2006 - Zhang XR - Solar energy powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO2.pdf
Page Number: 001

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Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 2345–2354

Solar energy powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO2 H. Yamaguchi a, X.R. Zhang a,*, K. Fujima b, M. Enomoto c, N. Sawada d

a Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 630-0321, Japan

b Mayekawa MFG. Co., Ltd., 2000 Tatsuzawa Moriya-city, Ibaraki-Pref., 302-0118, Japan

c Showa Denko K. K., 1-480, Inuzuka, Oyama-city, Tochigi 323-8679, Japan

d Showa Tansan Co., Ltd., 7-1, Ogimachi, Kawasaki-Ku, Kawasaki-city, Kanagawa 210-0867, Japan

Received 14 November 2005; accepted 28 February 2006 Available online 18 April 2006

www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

Abstract

A solar energy powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO2 for combined production of electricity and thermal energy is proposed. The proposed system consists of evacuated solar collectors, power generating turbine, high-temperature heat recovery system, low-tem- perature heat recovery system, and feed pump. The system utilizes evacuated solar collectors to convert CO2 into high-temperature supercritical state, used to drive a turbine and thereby produce mechanical energy and hence electricity. The system also recovers heat (high-temperature heat and low-temperature heat), which could be used for refrigeration, air conditioning, hot water supply, etc. in domestic or commercial buildings. An experimental prototype has been designed and constructed. The prototype system has been tested under typical summer conditions in Kyoto, Japan; It was found that CO2 is efficiently converted into high-temperature supercritical state, of while electricity and hot water can be generated. The experimental results show that the solar energy powered Rankine cycle using CO2 works stably in a trans-critical region. The estimated power generation efficiency is 0.25 and heat recovery efficiency is 0.65. This study shows the potential of the application of the solar-powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO2.

Ó 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Solar energy; Supercritical CO2; Rankine cycle; Power generation; Heat collection

1. Introduction

The expanding population and the energy crisis have brought serious problems to the world environment and sustainable development. The applications of renewable energies (e.g. solar and wind power) to electricity genera- tion and heat collection/refrigeration become more and more important, and has received considerable attention. During the last two decades a number of researchers have worked on developing new combined power/heat or power/refrigeration thermodynamic cycles or improving existing ones. Various systems have been suggested and developed. For example, high-temperature solar thermal technologies (including single axis and two axis tracking technologies) have been studied by a number of research

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address: scho@mail.doshisha.ac.jp (X.R. Zhang).

1359-4311/$ - see front matter Ó 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2006.02.029

groups [1–3]. Single axis tracking systems are comprised of technologies in which relatively long and narrow reflec- tors track the sun around a single axis to keep the sun’s image in focus on a linear absorber or receiver [4,5]. Two axis tracking technologies developed include paraboloidal dishes, single tower-central generation, and distributed tower systems [6–8]. In addition, in recent years, low-tem- perature technologies have also been developed and the processes are more efficient than in previous systems. Ther- modynamic cycles for combined power and heat system have a great potential to become competitive with fossil fuels (especially natural gas) based power systems [9–12]. The potential exists for meeting this goal by reducing the cost and improving the thermodynamic performance of power cycles by hybridization and combined cycle approaches and by employing new and innovative ideas in thermodynamic cycles. For example, Kalina [13] pro- posed the use of ammonia/water mixture as a working fluid

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