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Publication Name: Waste Heat to Power (WH2P) Applications Using a Supercritical CO2-Based Power Cycle
Original File Name Searched: waste-heat-to-power-applications.pdf
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Abstract

Presented at Power-Gen International 2012, 11-13 December 2012, Orlando, FL U.S.A.

Waste Heat to Power (WH2P) Applications Using a Supercritical CO2-Based Power Cycle

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Alex Kacludis, Sean Lyons, Dan Nadav, and Edward Zdankiewicz

Echogen Power Systems LLC 365 Water St.

Akron, OH 44308 U.S.A. www.echogen.com

Echogen Power Systems (EPS) has developed a breakthrough power generation cycle for usable (waste) heat recovery. The supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Rankine Cycle utilizes carbon dioxide in place of water/steam for a heat-driven power cycle that converts waste heat into electricity for utility-scale power generation and industrial processes including steel and metal production, cement and lime, mining, glass, pulp & paper, petro-chemical, oil & gas, and other heat generating industries.

This paper presents an overview on three exemplary applications: combined cycle gas turbines using a sCO2-based bottoming cycle, bottoming cycle for a reciprocating engine generator sets, and waste heat to power (WH2P) from energy-intensive manufacturing processes.

The Supercritical CO2-Based Power Cycle

The Thermafficient® Heat Engine uses supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) and patent-pending operating cycles to deliver a flexible, low-cost thermal engine for a wide variety of applications. Echogen’s cost-effective, emission-free power will enable fuel intensive operations to address growing concerns regarding power cost and environmental stewardship.

The sCO2 heat engine consists of five main components: exhaust and recuperator heat exchangers, condenser, system pump, and power turbine (Figure 1). Ancillary components (valves and sensors) provide system monitoring and control. Heat energy is introduced to the sCO2 power cycle through an exhaust heat exchanger installed into the exhaust stack from a gas turbine or reciprocating engine or into a flue gas stream from a fuel-fired industrial process. Echogen’s technology recycles the wasted thermal energy and provides integrated power and heating or cooling with flexible system architectures, configurable for power, co-generation or tri-generation.

Supercritical CO2 (sCO2) is an ideal working fluid for closed-loop power generation applications. It is a low-cost fluid that is non-toxic and non-flammable. The high fluid density of sCO2 enables extremely compact turbo-machinery designs and permits the use of compact heat exchanger technology. Because of its high thermal stability and non-flammability, the exhaust heat

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