Organic Rankine Cycle
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Publication Name: ADVANCED EJECTOR REFRIGERATION MACHINES OPERATING WITH LOW BOILING REFRIGERANTS
Original File Name Searched: Advanced Ejector Technologies_presentation of V.O.Petrenko.pdf
Page Number: 001
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Paper prepared as presentation especially for Global Energy and Infinity Turbine LLC, February 20, 2012
ADVANCED EJECTOR REFRIGERATION MACHINES OPERATING WITH LOW BOILING REFRIGERANTS
Dr. PETRENKO V.O.
Odessa State Academy of Refrigeration, Ejector Refrigeration Technology Center 1/3, Dvoryanskaya St., Odessa, 65082, Ukraine email@example.com
Suggested paper is related to the non-traditional heat-driven Ejector Refrigeration Technology, operating with low- boiling environmentally friendly refrigerants. The important advantages of this technology are: low temperature heat supply, simplicity in design and operation, high reliability and low installation cost - that makes this technology more attractive than others. Use of the low-boiling point refrigerants is found suitable to operate ejector cooling cycle satisfactory at heat source temperature as low as 80 oC.
The paper provides the main results of research and development (R&D) carried out at the Odessa State Academy of Refrigeration, Ukraine, in the area of solar and waste heat-driven ejector refrigeration machines (ERMs) that operate with low-boiling working fluids. The guidelines of our R&D activity in the area of ejector refrigeration technologies include the following main methods of ERM improvement: a) appropriate selection of environmentally friendly, and preferably natural, working fluids; b) optimum design of supersonic ejector flow profiles and ejector constructions; c) optimization of ejector refrigeration cycles and operating conditions; d) development of autonomous ERMs using non- conventional and thermally driven feed pumps; and e) development of various trigeneration, combined and hybrid multipurpose systems with application of various ERMs. Based on the obtained results, advanced high-efficiency solar and waste heat-driven ERMs are developed and suggested for application in different areas.
At the present time, the most prevalent cooling systems are electrically driven compression chillers, which have a world market share of about 90%. However, thermal cooling systems offer interesting alternatives for use as air conditioner, chillers and refrigerators, especially if they can be driven by low-grade heat from solar collectors or by waste heat from cogeneration units, thereby minimizing pollutant emissions and reducing primary energy consumption (Eicker, 2009).
Thermal cooling is a very promising technology for creation of heat- driven ERMs that operate on solar and waste or exhaust heat using low- boiling environmentally friendly refrigerants.
Solar ERMs realize refrigeration for air-conditioning, space-cooling, and food storage in the range of evaporating temperatures from 12°C to –10°C. These systems can be driven by conventional single-glazed flat plate solar collectors with selective surfaces or by vacuum tube solar collectors, which can be most economical for ERMs by a proper choice of optimum generating temperature (Huang et al., 2001). ERMs can also be powered by waste heat supplied from a combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Cogeneration or CHP production is an old and well-known technique for the rational use of energy.
Trigeneration or combined heating, cooling and power (CHCP) can be seen as the simultaneous production of electricity, heat and cooling power from the same source of energy such as natural gas or oil. In CHCP systems electricity is provided by on-site or near-site power generators. Waste heat from power generation equipment is recovered by operating installations for heating and cooling, which usually are utilizing heat recovery unit with water-LiBr absorption chilling. Trigeneration) is a quite recent technology, but is becoming an increasingly important energy saving option, particularly on a small-scale basis (Chicco and Mancarella, 2007). Various types of micro-trigeneration, combined and hybrid multipurpose systems can be designed and developed using simple, reliable a n d i n e x p e n s i v e ejector chillers, air conditioners, and refrigerators (Petrenko, 2009).
Recently, several high-efficiency solar and waste heat-driven ERMs operating with refrigerant R245fa were developed, and COPs in the range of 0.45 – 0.75 were obtained at practical operating conditions. These results are very encouraging for air-conditioning and cooling applications because these COPs are similar to those of absorption cycle machines. Thus, ERMs driven by solar energy or by inexpensive low-grade waste and exhaust heat could be suitable alternatives to water-LiBr absorption systems (Petrenko et al., 2005b, Petrenko et al., 2008, Petrenko et al., 2011).
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