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Publication Title | Working fluid selection for Organic Rankine Cycle applied to heat recovery systems

Organic Rankine Cycle

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Working fluid selection for Organic Rankine Cycle applied to heat recovery systems

D. C. Bândean 1, S. Smolen 2*, J. T. Cieslinski 3,

1Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

2University of Applied Sciences, Bremen, Germany

3Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland

* Corresponding author. Tel: 0049-(0)421-5905-3579, Fax: 0049-(0)421-5905-3505, E-mail: smolen@fbm.hs- bremen.de

Abstract: The selection of suitable organic fluids for use in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for waste energy recovery from many potential sources of low-medium temperature (up to 350 oC) is a crucial step to achieve high thermal efficiency. In order to identify the most suitable organic fluids, several general criteria have to be taken into consideration, from the thermophysical properties of the fluids leading to the environmental impact and cost related issues. The aim of the study is to elaborate a tool for the comparison of the influence of different working fluids on performance of an ORC heat recovery power plant installation. A database of a number of organic fluids as well as a s oftware (code) which allows the user to select the proper organic fluid for particular application have been developed. Calculations have been conducted for the same heat source and installation component parameters. The elaborated tool should create a support by choosing an optimal working fluid for special applications and become a part of a bigger optimization procedure by different frame conditions.

Keywords: Organic Rankine Cycle, Database, Heat Recovery Nomenclature

Q in heat flux input ........................................ .kW

m mass flow rate.....................................kg⋅s-1 π pressure ratio

hi specific enthalpy for process point i...kJ·kg-1 T high high system temperature.........................°C Tlow low system temperature .......................... °C phigh high system pressure............................MPa

1. Introduction

plow low system pressure.............................MPa η turbine internal efficiency of the turbine ........... % ηpump internal efficiency of the pump.............. % η system system efficiency ................................. % Ppump power used by the pump...................... kW Pturbine output power of the turbine ............... kW

Qout heat flux output in the condenser ........ .kW

Nowadays, with energy demand rising at an ever increasing rate, efficient use of energy has become a m ajor issue. One candidate suitable for improving efficiencies of existing applications and allowing the extraction of energy from previously unsuitable sources is the Organic Rankine Cycle. Applications based on t his cycle allow the use of low temperature energy sources such as waste heat from industrial applications, geothermal sources, biomass fired power plants and micro combined heat and power systems.

Waste heat represents the heat produced by machines, electrical equipment and industrial processes which has no practical use. Usually it’s generated by fuel combustion or by chemical reaction. The difficulty of capturing, distribution or transformation into other forms of energy comes from the characteristics of the heat source and the high costs connected to the equipment needed to transform the heat into useful energy. Statistical investigations indicate that low-grade waste heat accounts for 50% or more of the total heat generated in industry [1]. There are several types of industrial waste heat sources, some of which are presented in Table 1.

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