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Publication Title | Waste heat recovery Organic Rankine cycles in sustainable energy conversion: A state-of-the-art review

Organic Rankine Cycle

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MACROJOURNALS

Bahram Saadatfar, Reza Fakhrai and Torsten Fransson, JMES Vol 1 Issue 1 2013

The Journal of MacroTrends in Energy and Sustainability

Waste heat recovery Organic Rankine cycles in sustainable energy conversion: A state-of-the-art review

Bahram Saadatfar, Reza Fakhrai and Torsten Fransson

Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology KTH Brinellvägen 68, 10044 Stockholm, Sweden

Abstract

The exploitation of low grade renewable heat sources necessitates the use of Organic Rankine Cycle systems (ORC) as a mature technology for low-grade temperature power generation, where organic fluids such as hydrocarbons or refrigerants are utilized to facilitate efficient power and/or heating or cooling cogeneration. The paper is structured in some parts. An introduction and a brief description of ORC system is presented, followed by an analysis of physical properties of working fluids. Next, different applications for ORC are introduced. In the next sections, different types of expanders, heat exchangers, and manufacturer of this technology are described. Finally, some current research and development related to the use of ORC in combined cycles are discussed.

Keywords: Sustainable energy, Alternative energy, Waste heat, ORC

1. Introduction

Renewable energy sources, such as solar thermal and geothermal, biomass, municipal solid waste (MSW) and vast amounts of industrial waste heat are potentially promising energy sources capable, in part, to meet the world electricity demand [1–3]. However, the low grade heat from these sources cannot be converted efficiently to electrical power by using the conventional power generation methods [4–6].

In this context, research on how to convert these low-grade temperature heat sources into electrical power is of great significance [7]. However, the thermal efficiency of the conventional steam power generation considerably low and becomes uneconomically when steam

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