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Publication Title | THE ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE: THERMODYNAMICS, APPLICATIONS AND OPTIMIZATION

Organic Rankine Cycle

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – The Organic Rankine Cycle: Thermodynamics, Applications and Optimization – Sylvain Quoilin and Vincent Lemort

THE ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE: THERMODYNAMICS, APPLICATIONS AND OPTIMIZATION

Sylvain Quoilin and Vincent Lemort

Energy Systems Research Unit, University of Liège, Belgium

Keywords: Steam Cycle, Organic Rankine Cycle, ORC, optimization, expanders

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Overview of traditional vapor cycle systems 2.1. Limitations and optimization

2.2. Improvement of the Rankine cycle

3. The Organic Rankine Cycle: overview

3.1. Applications

3.2. Comparison with the steam cycle

3.3. Expansion machines

4. Modeling

4.1. Cycle performance

4.2. Pump and expander effectiveness

4.3. Heat exchangers & Pinch point

5. Working fluid selection

6. Control and optimization

6.1. Causal behavior of ORC components

6.2. Optimal working conditions

6.3. Degrees of freedom

7. Conclusions

Glossary

Bibliography

Biographical Sketches

Summary

New energy conversion technologies are required in order to insure the production of electricity without generating environmental pollution. Among them, low-grade heat sources or low power heat sources present an important potential of development.

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a well known technology since the early 1980’s. A large amount of ORC power plants have been built, mainly for geothermal, waste heat recovery and combined heat and power applications. This technology shows a number of advantages over the traditional steam Rankine cycle that make it more profitable for power plants with a limited electrical output power (typically lower than 1 MWe), despite a lower efficiency. The optimization of the ORC is quite different from that of the steam cycle, mainly because of the heat source temperature limitation, and because there is usually no constraint regarding the vapor quality at the end of the expansion.

©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS)

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