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Publication Title | Performance analysis of electricity generation by the medium temperature geothermal resources: Velika Ciglena case study

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Energy 54 (2013) 11e31

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Energy

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/energy

Performance analysis of electricity generation by the medium temperature geothermal resources: Velika Ciglena case study

Predrag Raskovi c a, *, Zvonimir Guzovi c b, Svetislav Cvetkovi c a

a Faculty of Technology, University of Nis, Bulevar OsloboCenja 124, 16000 Leskovac, Serbia

b Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Luci ca 5, 10002 Zagreb, p.p. 102, Croatia

articleinfo

Article history:

Received 19 December 2011 Received in revised form

22 February 2013

Accepted 2 March 2013 Available online 6 April 2013

Keywords:

Geothermal energy

Velika Ciglena in Croatia Binary cycles Equation-oriented simulation Performance analysis

1. Introduction

During the last century, geothermal energy [1e3] has been commonly used for commercial, industrial, and residential direct heating purposes (“direct use”), for electricity production, and for efficient home heating and cooling through geothermal heat pumps. Its use primarily depends not only on geothermal resource quality, quantity and projected production, but also on specific technological and economic criteria. In 2008, geothermal energy was utilized “directly” in 78 countries, generating 121.7 TWh/yr (0.44 EJ/yr) of thermal energy [4], while electricity production was actualized in only 24 countries, with an estimated production of 67.2 TWh/yr (0.24 EJ/yr). Today, only 0.3% of the world’s electricity is generated from geothermal sources (International Geothermal Association) but, in the future, geothermal power production is expected to steadily increase, reaching a share of 0.6% by the year 2030 [5,6].

In the West Balkan Countries (http://www.westbalkanresearch. net/), specifically in the Republic of Croatia, the use of geothermal

* Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: pr.raskovic@sezampro.rs (P. Raskovi c), zvonimir.guzovic@

fsb.hr (Z. Guzovi c), sveta983@hotmail.rs (S. Cvetkovi c).

0360-5442/$ e see front matter ! 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2013.03.009

abstract

During the last decade, a design of an energy efficient and cost effective geothermal plant represents a significant and on-going technical challenge in all the Western Balkan countries. In the Republic of Croatia, the geothermal field Velika Ciglena is identified as one of the most valuable geothermal heat sources and probably the location where the first geothermal plant in the Western Balkan area will be built. The purpose of this work is the conceptual design and performance analysis of the binary plants ethe one which operates under the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and the other under Kalina (KLN) cycleewhich can be used for geothermal energy utilization in Velika Ciglena. A conceptual plant design is performed by the equation-oriented modelling approach and supported by the two steady-state spreadsheet simulators. The performance analysis of all design solutions is conducted through energy and exergy analysis, and by the estimated total cost of operating units in the plant. The results of the analysis indicate that the plant design based on the ORC cycle has a higher thermodynamic efficiency and lower cost of equipment, and consequently, it is more suitable for the future geothermal plant in Velika Ciglena.

! 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

energy is limited only to direct use, usually for medical purposes. In order to promote geothermal activities, especially electricity pro- duction from geothermal sources, the scientific institutions and public companies in Croatia started a comprehensive geological and geophysical research in the early 1970s [7e9]. In the late 90s, the Energy Institute “Hrvoje Pozar” prepared a comprehensive survey [10], which signified the five locations with the highest geothermal potential for electricity production. Among them, the geothermal field Velika Ciglena, situated 11 km southeast from the city of Bjelovar, was identified as the most promising location for the construction of the first geothermal power plant in Croatia.

Since that time, a few important documents have analysed the implementation of different technologies for the design and con- struction of a geothermal plant in Velika Ciglena. In 2010, Guzovi c et al. [11], presented the detailed descriptions and specifications of Velika Ciglena geothermal field, emphasising high geothermal gradients (in the range of 0.063e0.065 C/m), and plentiful pro- duction of hot geothermal water, (83.3 l/s, temperature 175 C) of that source. In that paper, the authors also proposed two concep- tual models for the future geothermal plant in Velika Ciglena. Both models were binary cycle based; the first one was operated under the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and the second was operated under Kalina (KLN) cycle. In addition, the authors made a ther- modynamic analysis of those plants, and the final results of their

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