Organic Rankine Cycle
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22nd International Congress of Mechanical Engineering (COBEM 2013) November 3-7, 2013, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil Copyright © 2013 by ABCM
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AN ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE
Thiago Gotelip Correa Veloso1 Christian R. Coronado2; 3 Rubén Alexis Miranda Carrillo ; Cesar Sotomonte4.
Federal University of Itajubá - UNIFEI, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Av. BPS 1303, Itajubá, MG, Brazil. firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Abstract. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a promising alternative for power generation through the use of sources of low and medium temperature. The result is a better use of energy resources. This paper evaluated the behavior of an ORC cycle operating with different organic fluids. It is performed the computational, unidimensional and tridimensional simulation of a 1000 kW radial turbine evaluating its performance and flow characteristics. The study was conducted from the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics, using previously established conditions for the cycle in question. It is presented an adequate set of the working fluid to evaluate the cycle's efficiency and turbine's geometry in order to extract more energy from the heat source. The data was obtained with an evaluation of the parameters of significant influence on the efficiency of ORC cycles. Through these results, it is possible to consider about the best configuration to be used, seeking to optimize the working cycle and the utilization of the heat source. The R-600 and R-600a fluids stood out for application in this study.
Keywords: ORC Cycle; Organic Fluids; Energy Resources; Radial Turbine. 1. INTRODUCTION
Currently, energy and development are strongly associated concepts, reason why one could ensure that the progress of society depends on a broad, efficient and economic energy supply.
The increased electricity consumption has become a feature of our modern society, and can be taken as an important social indicator. In this way, energy and energy self-sufficiency are matters that must be related to a country organization, planning and development.
The increasing energy demand must be associated with the search for new energy sources as well as an environmental impact control, creating alternatives to energy matrices. The pursuit for more acceptable environmental standards will lead to a progressive use of potential energy efficiency, in both energy use and production, and will also prompt a more thrifty use of industrial energy-intensive basic supplies.
Thereby an increasing incentive in renewable energy research and innovation must be provided, aiming at new sources of clean energy introduction and consolidation. The development of systems that promote greater energy efficiency provides several benefits, such as CO2 and other pollutants emission reduction, consumer economy, and greater use of local energy sources.
This article aimed to perform an Organic Rankine Cycle analysis, evaluating different types of working fluids, followed by a 1000 kW radial turbine analysis, appraising its characteristics with a Thermodynamic Cycle.
2. CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE (ORC)
The ORC cycle is at present the most commonly thermal system used to recover heat that is commercially available for systems between 200-4000 KW. The spread of these systems has been rapidly developed - in 1994 there were approximately 11 units installed in Austria, Switzerland, Italy and Germany, and 13 more units were being built in those same countries. Currently, there are between 300 and 400 ORC plants in Europe. The growth in number of projects and installed power of ORC in the last 20 years has had an exponential character, and the main energy source being used in these systems is biomass, followed by geothermal energy and residual heat recovery, respectively (QUOLIN and LEMORT, 2009).
The Organic Rankine cycle has emerged as an efficient technology for conversion of low and medium temperature heat into electricity. According to Shengjun, et al., (2010) the possibility of utilizing efficient energy resources, with smaller systems and great economic performance, enhance this technology attractiveness.
The Organic Rankine cycle is composed of its main components: evaporator, turbine, pump and condenser; and its operating principle is similar to a Conventional Rankine Cycle. The main difference between the two cycles is the working fluid used – the Conventional Rankine Cycle uses water while the Organic Rankine Cycle can use hydrocarbons or coolants (organic fluids), that provides its special characteristics.
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