Organic Rankine Cycle
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Text | ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE POWER PLANT FOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY | 001
Lucien Y. Bronicki, Chairman ORMAT International Inc.
980 Greg St., Sparks, Nevada 89431-6039 - USA Tel: +1 775 356 9029, Fax: +1 775 9039 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Organic Rankine Cycle, Waste Heat Recovery, Cement Industry, Gas Compression Station
ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE POWER PLANT FOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY
Power Plants based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) have been increasingly employed over the last 20 years to produce power from various heat sources when other alternatives were either technically not practical or not economical. These power plants in sizes from 300 kW to 130 MW have demonstrated the maturity of this technology. The cycle is well adapted to low moderate temperature heat sources such as waste heat from industrial plants and is widely used producing 600 MW of electric power from geothermal and waste heat resources. The ORC technology is applicable to heat recovery of medium size gas turbines and cement plants, and offers significant advantages over conventional steam bottoming cycles. One such system, the 6.5 MW Gold Creek Power Plant is now in operation at a gas compressor station in Canada displacing some 25,000 tons of CO2 yearly. The Gold Creek Power Plant is owned and operted by a subsidiary of Transcanada Pipeline. A second system of 1.5 MW is operating at the Heidelberger Zement AG Plant in Lengurt, Germany. These environmentally friendly power plants are the first to be installed in these industries. The Cement power plant is recovering unused grate cooler heat and is generating electricity on a continuosly basis without interfering with the initial clinker production process, displacing some 7000 t of CO2 yearly. The use of ORC technology based systems has matured to a field proven and highly reliable technology. ORC have demonstrated advantages over conventional steam cycles and are particularly applicable to geothermal power plants and the recovery of waste heat, from small to medium gas turbines such as the compressor stations, while providing cost and environmental advantages.
A. Lengfurt Cement Power Plant
The ORMAT heat recovery system at the Heidelberger Zement AG Plant in Lengfurt is the first of such systems supplied to the cement industry. (Figure 1) This environmentally friendly plant recovers the unused grate cooler heat and generates 1,300 kW of electricity on a continuous basis, amounting to over 10% of the cement plant's internal electricity use, without interfering with the initial clinker production process. The waste heat recovery power plant will result in the saving of 7,000 tons of CO2 annually.
Even for an optimized cement process, significant heat loss, mainly caused by the heat of the waste gases, still occurs. The heat balance of a kiln plant reveals that preheater waste gases and cooler exhaust air account for more than 30% of that heat loss.
Waste heat sources may be directly used for drying of raw material, coal or intergrinding matter. However, there are numerous cement plants where this utilization is either not possible or not required and this unused heat is lost. The economic order of magnitude of such losses in a typical kiln line of 2000 t/d capacity with a 4-stage cyclone preheater and grate cooler, is as follows:
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