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Publication Title | HFC-245fa Working Fluid in Organic Rankine Cycle - A Safe and Economic Way to Generate Electricity from Waste Heat

Organic Rankine Cycle

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HFC-245fa Working Fluid in Organic Rankine Cycle - A Safe and Economic Way to Generate Electricity from Waste Heat

Gary J. Zyhowskia, Andrew P. Brownb, Abdennacer Achaichiab

a Honeywell, Buffalo, New York, USA b Honeywell, Heverlee, Belgium, NV

Abstract: Climate change, environmental legislation and binding targets for renewable energy, alongside an increased focus on the economic benefits of energy and fuel conservation, are driving the adoption of new technologies as sources of energy. With these dynamics, it is evident that waste heat recovery technologies can play a key role in reducing the dependency on fossil fuels and in meeting future energy needs. These technologies can be important in reducing the CO2 footprint of existing fossil power generation and achievement of renewable energy targets. Since the recovered heat is effectively ‘free of charge’, there is a direct positive impact on the energy costs to the end user. There has been considerable focus on the recovery of high temperature waste heat but less attention has been paid to the extensive opportunities that exist to recover lower grade heat. This paper focuses on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) as an effective technology for low to medium temperature heat recovery. Recovery of low to medium temperature waste heat from installations such as power plants, diesel & gas generators, and industrial plants using ORC technology can provide additional electrical output, thus boosting overall efficiency and reducing the ratio of emissions/kWe produced. When available process heat cannot be readily utilized to satisfy a thermal requirement, Organic Rankine Cycle offers flexibility since the additional electrical output can be used in many ways, eliminating the associated expense and engineering required to use this heat in methods that require site-specific design. The availability of a non-flammable working fluid with appropriate thermophysical properties is an important aspect affecting the efficiency of the Organic Rankine Cycle. This paper describes the properties of HFC-245fa and discusses its potential application in power generation systems. The commercially available Refrigeration Grade HFC-245fa meeting Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute Standard 700 has provided a viable option for safe, flexible, and economically efficient conversion of waste heat to electric power using Organic Rankine Cycle technology.

Keywords: HFC-245fa, Organic Rankine cycle, geothermal energy, bottoming cycle.

1. Introduction

Predictions of the growth in energy consumption around the world offer a clear picture that fossil fuel energy resources alone will not be capable of meeting future energy requirements. Additionally, climate change, environmental legislation and binding targets for renewable energy, alongside an increased focus across the manufacturing sector on the economic benefits of energy and fuel conservation, are driving the adoption of alternative technologies as sources of both thermal and electrical energy. On the basis of these dynamics it is evident that heat recovery and waste heat recovery technologies can be important in

reducing the dependency on fossil fuel power. To date, both the industrial world and the power generation sector have predominantly focused on the utilization and recovery of high temperature heat and waste heat, but less attention has been paid to the large number of opportunities that exist to recover and use lower temperature heat.

In terms of off-setting current fossil fuel power generation, it is clear that a mix of both renewable and cleaner energy technologies will be necessary to meet future demand. Geothermal power, for example, will be part of this energy mix. In Europe, 2030 targets are for the geothermal sector to contribute to 5% of the total electricity production,

http://www.ecos2010.ch

1 14-17th june 2010, Lausanne, Switzerland

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