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Publication Title | Contrasting thermodynamic, technical and economic potentials: The example of organic Rankine cycle use within UK industry

Organic Rankine Cycle

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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

Energy Procedia 00 (2014) 000–000

The 6th International Conference on Applied Energy – ICAE2014

Contrasting thermodynamic, technical and economic potentials: The example of organic Rankine cycle use within UK industry

Q. Chena, G.P. Hammonda,b, J.B. Normana,*

aDept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.

bInstitute for Sustainable Energy and the Environment (I-SEE), University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.

Abstract

The laws of thermodynamics set a theoretical limit on the energy savings that can be realised in a given application. This thermodynamic potential cannot be reached in practice, and a technical potential for energy savings is defined by the performance of available technology. Only applications of the technology that are considered economic will usually be considered for installation. This economic potential will itself not be fully realised, with the actual savings achieved limited by further barriers. A database on surplus heat availability within UK industry was used to estimate the thermodynamic, technical, and economic potentials when converting this surplus heat to electricity using organic Rankine cycles (ORCs). Technical and economic information was based on that reported from existing installations and manufacturers. Various parameters, such as the local price of electricity, are subject to considerable uncertainty, and so a range of possible scenarios were investigated. The results form a basis for discussion on how to close this “gap” between the identified potentials and the savings realised.

© 2014 Q. Chen, G.P. Hammond and J.B. Norman. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of ICAE

Keywords: Surplus heat; Energy efficiency gap; Organic Rankine cycle; Industry; Barriers; Manufacturing. 1. Introduction

Surplus heat arises from many processes within industry [1]. One potential use of this heat is its conversion to electricity [2]. Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) are the most well established technology for converting heat that is available at too low a temperature for the use of traditional, water-based, electricity generation technology. A dataset detailing the surplus heat available at industrial sites in the UK was

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +44(0)1225 384019 E-mail address: j.b.norman@bath.ac.uk

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

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