Organic Rankine Cycle
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Hindawi Publishing Corporation Mathematical Problems in Engineering Volume 2014, Article ID 689398, 12 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/689398
Analysis of Combined Power and Refrigeration Generation Using the Carbon Dioxide Thermodynamic Cycle to Recover the Waste Heat of an Internal Combustion Engine
Shunsen Wang, Kunlun Bai, Yonghui Xie, Juan Di, and Shangfang Cheng
School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi’an 710049, China
Correspondence should be addressed to Yonghui Xie; email@example.com
Received 23 March 2014; Accepted 12 May 2014; Published 2 June 2014
Academic Editor: Zhijun Zhang
Copyright © 2014 Shunsen Wang et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
A novel thermodynamic system is proposed to recover the waste heat of an internal combustion engine (ICE) by integrating the transcritical carbon dioxide (CO2 ) refrigeration cycle with the supercritical CO2 power cycle, and eight kinds of integration schemes are developed. e key parameters of the system are optimized through a genetic algorithm to achieve optimum matching with di erent variables and schemes, as well as the maximum net power output (𝑊net). e results indicate that replacing a single- turbine scheme with a double-turbine scheme can signi cantly enhance the net power output (𝑊net) and lower the inlet pressure of the power turbine (𝑃4). With the same exhaust parameters of ICE, the maximum 𝑊net of the double-turbines scheme is 40%– 50% higher than that of the single-turbine scheme. Replacing a single-stage compression scheme with a double-stage compression scheme can also lower the value of 𝑃4, while it could not always signi cantly enhance the value of 𝑊net. Except for the power consumption of air conditioning, the net power output of this thermodynamic system can reach up to 13%–35% of the engine power when it is used to recover the exhaust heat of internal combustion engines.
e internal combustion engine (ICE) has been a primary power source for automobiles, long-haul trucks, locomotives, and ships in the past few decades. Although a lot of advanced technologies have been developed to increase the thermal e ciency of the ICE, around 60%–75% of the fuel energy is still lost as waste heat through the exhaust and the coolant . Despite the engine exhaust and the engine coolant having similar energy content, the higher temperature of the engine’s exhaust gas makes it more thermodynamically attractive when viewed from the perspective of exergy. is results in a higher theoretical e ciency gain when coupled to a heat engine .
Recently, many e orts have been made to recover waste energy from the engine exhaust. Bianchi and De Pascale  evaluated three thermodynamic cycles, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), Stirling, and the inverted Brayton, in order to recover low- and medium-grade waste heat. ey determined that an ORC is the most attractive one of the three. Jansen
et al.  developed a waste heat recovery system using the Brayton cycle, which consists of a heat exchanger to recover the exhaust heat, a turbocharger system to compress air and convert the heat energy into mechanical work, and an electric machine integrated into the turbocharger sha to generate electric power. Results indicate that it can improve fuel e ciency by as much as 10%. Song et al.  simpli ed the above system using the turbocharger compressor as the Brayton cycle compressor and the fuel economy of the diesel engine was improved only by 2.6% at high engine speed and 4.6% at low engine speed under engine full-load operating conditions. In 2005, Cummins Inc. proposed a scheme to recover the waste heat of a heavy-duty diesel engine through ORC. en, AVL Inc. planned to develop a supercritical ORC to recover the waste heat of heavy-duty automotive diesel engine. Diego A. Arias from the University of Wisconsin proposed three di erent supercritical ORCs to recover di erent kinds of waste heat from a hybrid engine. BMW Inc. produced the “Turbo Steamer” system with a high temperature cycle and a low temperature cycle. e
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