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International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2012 1 ISSN 2250-3153
Advance Power Plant Technologies and Steam Cycle for Super Critical Application
P.Srinivasarao*, Dr. P. Ravinder Reddy**, Dr.K.Vijaya Kumar Reddy***
*Associate Professor, Dept of Mech Engg, SSJEC, Hyderabad-500075, (A.P), India. Email: email@example.com
**Professor & Head, Dept. of Mech. Engg, CBIT, Hyderabad -500075, (A.P), India. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com ***Professor, Dept of Mech. Engg, JNTUH, Hyderabad-500085, (A.P), India. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Considering the high capital cost involved in new generation “clean technologies” developing countries like India having an abundance of cheap fossil fuel reserves have to give a major thrust to improvement in fossil-fired power technologies. Steam turbine based generating plants form the backbone of power generation in many countries in our country too, Base load is presently largely generated by fossil fuel based power plants. Most of these plants employ sub-critical coal fired boilers driving steam turbines to generate power. The adoption of “Supercritical cycles” for thermal plants on a wide scale has the ability to improve overall system efficiency, as well as provide benefits of lower emissions both on land & in air. Steam cycles for supercritical application operate at very high pressure & temperatures; these are thus characterized by features that take full advantage of the advanced parameters like higher expansion in turbines, more stages of feed heating & higher input levels to boilers, contributing to higher system efficiency. All the components of the cycle are optimally designed to take advantages of these elevated parameters. Additionally, these cycles are built considering large size machines to take full advantage of economies of scale, thus reducing “Footprint” per MW generated. All of these contribute to lower land & water use, less consumption of coal & reduced wastes & emissions. The paper deals with the design of these cycles in detail in addition to comparing them to the existing sub critical cycles, highlighting areas of improvement.
Power generation technologies have also kept pace. Through old technologies like steam, hydro and Nuclear Turbine have progressed to dizzying levels, newer “clean technologies’’ like wind & solar have also gained a major share of the grid in many countries, like India. There is now an ongoing debate both in favor of and against these clean technologies like. These are characterized by higher capital investment & longer pay back periods. Also these are site specific &always cannot be set up near consumption centers. The paper dwells on these advanced Technologies so alternatives to the conventional one. Considering the high capital cost involved in new generation “clean Technologies” developing countries like India having an abundance of cheap fossil fuel reserves have to give a major thrust to improvement in fossil-fired power technologies. Hydro power (Renewable energy where power is created by the movement of large quantities of water) generation in India started in 1897 when 200KW hydro-station was first commissioned at Darjeeling.  The Sidrapong Hydel power station located at the foot-hills of Arya tea Estate at an altitude of 3,600 ft (1,100 m) and 12 Km from Darjeeling town. The first plant consisted of two 65Kw Crompton-Brunton single-Phase, 2300 volts and 83.3hertz alternators coupled with two Gunther’s turbine. India’s first Hydo-Electrinic power station with 2x65KW capacity was commissioned on 10th November 1897 by C.C Stevens. It is a noteworthy fact that the first power utility run on commercial basis for use of general public in India was developed in public sector under state patronage. This was followed by the 4.5 Mega watt hydroelectric power station near sivasamudram falls In Mandya District of the Cauvery River in Karnataka, in south India was the first major power station in India owned by few British companies. The Hydro Electric power station of the sivasamudram is the first of its kind in Asia and was established in 1902 by Mysore dewan sir K.Seshadri Iyer. And from here power was supplied to Bangalore the first city to get power in India and also Kolar gold field mines, including Mysore, In India the Annual hydroelectric production is 115.6 (T W h).
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