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Publication Title | A Novel Organic Rankine Cycle System with Improved Thermal Stability and Low Global Warming Fluids

Organic Rankine Cycle

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MATEC Web of Conferences 13, 06002 (2014)

DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/20141306002

⃝C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2014

A Novel Organic Rankine Cycle System with Improved Thermal Stability and Low Global Warming Fluids

Angad S Panesara, Robert E Morgan, Nicolas DD Miché and Morgan R Heikal

Centre for Automotive Engineering, University of Brighton, BN2 4GJ, United Kingdom

Abstract. This paper proposes a novel Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system for long haul truck application. Rather than typical tail pipe heat recovery configurations, the proposed setup exploits the gaseous streams that are already a load on the engine cooling module. The system uses dual loops connected only by the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) stream. A water blend study is conducted to identify suitable mixtures for the High Temperature (HT) loop, while the Low Temperature (LT) loop utilises a Low Global Warming (GWP) Hydrofluoroether.

1 Introduction

The use of ORC on long haul Heavy Duty Diesel Engines (HDDE) is a possible way to improve the specific fuel consumption. The two widely proposed organic working fluids for HDDE include R245fa and ethanol [1]. Also, the use of Rankin Cycle (RC) with water has been suggested [1]. The proposed fluids are not without their specific challenges. R245fa and ethanol’s stable temperature limits are over 100°C below the typical (400-500°C) EGR temperatures [2, 3]. When these two fluids are compared, R245fa is non-flammable but has a high GWP (950 yrs.). Ethanol on the other hand is highly flammable and has a low auto-ignition temperature of 363°C. Unfortunately, a RC solution also has its drawbacks, since water as a working fluid is only superior over organic fluids above 500°C [1]. Water is also the wettest fluid, requiring large amounts of superheat to avoid turbine damage. The additional drawback of using water is its high freezing temperature of 0°C.

2 Overview of the Blend study

In the absence of current pure fluids meeting the complex requirements of HDDE application, fluid blends may present an alternative avenue. As the resurgence of ORC systems for HDDE is relatively new, the present research on blends is inadequate to ascertain their suitability for vehicle application. This paper explores the use of binary water blends to provide desired properties and characteristics which can be tailored by varying the mass fractions. To screen the list of documented water blends [4], the developed criteria shown in Table 1 were used. Three positive homogeneous azeotropes were selected. Namely, water-diacetone alcohol, water-2butanol and water-acetonitrile with water mass fraction of 0.77, 0.26 and 0.15 respectively, forming an azeotropic composition at 1 bar. Also, three

a Corresponding author : A.Panesar@brighton.ac.uk

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 2.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article available at http://www.matec-conferences.org or http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20141306002

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